Collioure has always been a coveted place because of its opening to the Mediterranean Sea and its two bays which are easily defended. Many Phocaean, Roman, and Greek sailors traveled to Collioure and left behind a very rich archaeological heritage. In 673, Collioure was occupied by Wamba, King of the Visigoths. He named the place "CAUCOLIBERIS" (Port of Elne) which confirmed its importance as a trading port.
From 981 on, the counts of Roussillon and the kings of Majorca began to develop Collioure and build a fortress which was used as the summer residence for the kings of Majorca from 1276 to 1344.
Throughout the entire 13 th century, many crusaders passed through Collioure, e.g. the knights of the Templar order (hence the famous legend of the treasure of the Templars) in 1207, the Cistercians in 1242, and the Dominicans in 1280.
Later, the discovery of America in the 15 th century led to the progressive decline of the port of Collioure.
From 1462 to 1493, Collioure was under French occupation during the reign of Louis XI. In 1642, after the Catalans had freed themselves from Spanish supremacy, Collioure fell again into French hands. During that period, Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), a French officer who built fortresses under Louis XIV, altered the fortifications giving Collioure its current appearance. Through the Pyrenean Peace Treaty of 1659, the Roussillon definitively fell to the French crown.